Early American writers first had to ensure their own survival before they could think about writing for entertainment.
Thomas Cranmer —Archbishop of Canterburywho became increasingly Calvinist throughout the s. The English Reformationwhich began in the reign of Henry VIII of Englandwas initially influenced by a number of reforming movements on the continent: ErasmianLutheranand Reformedwhile the practice of the Church of England continued to display many similarities with Roman Catholicism.
One of the main influences upon the early reformation of England during the reign of Henry VIII was the work of William Tyndalewith his many theological treatises and his English translation of the Bible. Tyndale's theology was moreover monumental in the rise and development of English Puritanism.
Thomas Cranmerthe primate of the Church of Englandon the issue of the eucharist adopted the Reformed, rather than the Lutheran position. Cranmer wrote his religious views into the Book of Common Prayerwhich he revised several times during Edward's reign.
The version, in particular, incorporated many of Martin Bucer's suggestions, as did the Forty-Two Articles. But the Church of England retained practices which had been discarded by the continental Reformed churches including the keeping of Lentallowing the baptism of infants by midwivesretaining the custom of the churching of womenrequiring the clergy to wear vestmentsand requiring kneeling at Communion.
Cranmer's moderate reformed theological views could also be seen in his Book of Homiliesand his preface to the Great Biblepublished in The Great Bible was appointed by the crown to be used in every parish church, along with the Book of Common Prayer and the Articles of the Church of England.
These had become the bulwark of the Church of England, which the Elizabethan Puritans saw as a threat to true worship and godliness and an obstacle to further reformation. Reign of Mary I[ edit ] Further information: Mary sought to end the English Reformation and restore the Church of England to full communion with the Church of Romeand instituted repression later known as the Marian Persecutions.
John Hooper was especially important in the rise and development of English Puritanism. Roughly English Protestants the Marian exiles left the country for religious reasons.
Most of these churches continued to follow the Book of Common Prayer, but the Frankfurt congregation, under the leadership of John Knox used a liturgy drawn up by Knox, known as the Book of Common Orderaccording to which the clergy did not wear vestments.
The Frankfurt congregation was at odds with other English Marian exiles. The rise of English Puritanism was also influenced by the Marian exiles who settled in Geneva, and published the English translation of the Bible known as the Geneva Bible.
John Foxe's classic work Foxe's Book of Martyrs would have a major influence on the Puritan movement during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The Elizabethan religious settlement, [ edit ] Further information: Elizabeth had been raised as a Protestant in the household of Catherine Parr.
During the first year of Elizabeth's reign many of the Marian exiles returned to England. A compromise religious position established in is now known as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement.
It attempted to make England Protestant without totally alienating the portion of the population that had supported Catholicism under Mary. The settlement was consolidated in An interim position of 11 articles of faith operated for a few years.
Elizabeth's first Archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker had been the executor of Martin Bucer's will, and his replacement, Edmund Grindal had carried the coffin at Bucer's funeral.
While the Elizabethan Settlement proved generally acceptable, there remained minorities who were dissatisfied with the state of the Church of England. The cry for "further reform" in the s was the basis of what is now known as the Puritan Movement. The Puritans were not content with the Anglican settlement and the established church.
They believed that the English church and state should be further reformed by the Word of God and the faithful preaching of the Gospel, as in the continental reformed churches.
They were opposed to the rule of bishops, to the required use of the Book of Common Prayer, and many of the rituals of the Anglican establishment, which they believed were obstacles to true religion and godliness.
They believed the majority of the common people were kept in bondage to forms and rituals, and as a result to false religion and spiritual ignorance. The Puritans moreover wanted all the sins, rituals, and superstitions that "smacked of Roman Catholic idolatry" thoroughly abolished from the realm and from the churches, including; the mass, the surplice, kneeling at the Lord's Supper, vestments, graven images, profane and sexually immoral stage plays, and the widespread profanation of the Sabbath.
The Puritans promoted a thorough going doctrinal reformation that was Calvinistic, as well as a thorough going reformation of the English church and society based on Scripture and not human tradition.
The Puritan movement in Elizabethan England was strengthened by the fact that many of Queen Elizabeth's top political advisers and court officials had close ties with Puritan leaders, and were themselves partial to Puritan views of theology, politics, and the reformation of the English church and society.
They especially wanted to curb the power of the Anglican bishops and root out any influence of the Roman Catholic church, which were fundamental proponents of the Puritans.SOURCE: '"To Finish What's Begun': Anne Bradstreet's Last Words," in Early American Literature, Vol.
23, No. 2, , pp. – [In the following essay, Kopacz discusses the endings of Bradstreet's poems.] On a number of occasions Anne Bradstreet indicated concern about finishing her poems. Anne Bradstreet Essay - Anne Bradstreet: American Poet Anne Bradstreet is seen as a true poetic writer for the seventeenth century.
She exhibits a strong Puritan voice and is one of the first notable poets to write English verse in the American colonies. Anne Bradstreet: American Poet Anne Bradstreet is seen as a true poetic writer for the seventeenth century.
She exhibits a strong Puritan voice and is one of the first notable poets to write English verse in the American colonies.4/4(1). The Importance Of Memory And Long Term Memory - In contrast to this point, semantic memory (the second additional category) is solely responsible for retaining information about society and the world as a whole and it is a process that requires our conscious thought.
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