Violence is an expression of aggression. There can be various reasons that cause this kind of behaviour.
How is gendered violence inscribed through the spectacular and in everyday life? Anti-colonial struggles that achieved independence and formed post- colonial nation states have consolidated themselves through prodigious violence that defined and divided communities, memories, and futures.
Promises betrayed reverberate across the very borders such violation enshrines. This can be said of south Asia in its entirety. Continued in an era of transnational capital, which professes to have exceeded the nation state in both material and conceptual terms, gendered identities are constantly deployed to mediate the incommensurate between global capital and national particu- larisms.
We are concerned with these very mutations and reincarnations in bio- political states Foucault, a, b, Aware of the ways in which the authority of the state rearticulates itself through consolidations of cultural nationalisms and majority identity-formations, we wish to fore- ground the gendered contours in which this resurgence is effected, situat- ing it within shifting global, national, and local power relations.
Gendered violence is hardly the preserve of south Asia; globally, ethnic Downloaded from cdy. Engendering Violence violence, wars, colonialism, economic policy, religion and communitarian Engendering violence essay, and state-sanctioned terror have affected women in highly specific ways.
Here we outline some of the words and events that highlight the importance of a gendered analysis of violence in south Asia.
In doing so we seek to break the divisions between the public and private, political and sexual, that have pervaded the study of violence, arguing for reflexive scholarship and practice as powerful and necessary intervention.
This results in a crucial shift: Even when social legislation passed by the state has been progressive in a given context. What appears to be happening today in much of South and South-East Asia is the convergence of state and community-dictated patriarchal norms.
A gendered analysis of the violence—everyday, symbolic, or sudden—shows most of all that what women share is the way in which they experience this violence, holding in common the destructive reality of sexual brutalization, displacement, death, loss of loved ones, property, homes, and futures.
These events shift subjectivities and create new forms of agency in the process. Many of the articles in this volume propose a more nuanced understanding of these forms of agency. State formation in each of the south Asian cases has been premised on political investments in forms of violence, and their intersection with the daily, economic violence of poverty and systemic disenfranchisement.
The state in south Asia emerges quite literally as the primary regulator of the means of violence. Its investment in the mechanism and language of war, in structures of inequality, in the glorification of military cultures, and nuclearization only reinforces violence, and gendered violence in particu- lar.
Gujarat in brought to the fore state collusion—with its police, bureaucracy, judiciary, legislative, and executive branches party to, involved in, and complicit with the perpetra- tion of violence. Gujarat inand like it, Karachi through the s and beyond, the anti-Sikh riots in Delhi inviolent partition in Bangladesh inethnic violence in Sri Lanka and Maoist insurgency in Nepal, war in Kashmir and Afghanistan, have particular and general histories.
The growth and continuance of ethnic violence in the post-independence Downloaded from cdy. We cannot, however, detach them from their shared colonial histories. The imagined and real transfer of large numbers of people larger than populations of most European countries to unfamiliar new territories that ensued in the two partitions attest powerfully to a racist, colonial imaginary in shaping south Asia.
We still live in the symbolic and material grip of this past. We use the term community to refer to different social units at multiple levels of social organization—community here can mean biradaris, tribes, ethnic, sectarian and religious groups, or nation states.
Part of this kinship structure is the patriarchal designation of women as property—both literally and symbolically. A stark example of the exchange of women as a means to consolidate national communities and differentiate them from one another is the exchange of abducted women between India and Pakistan that took place following partition in Contemporary debates over this issue in the Indian Parliament8 reveal the moral anxieties over delineating the boundaries of the nation state.
Women experience violence and commoditization Downloaded from cdy. The strong identification of women with their community as property and as signifier makes them vulnerable to violence, especially at times of social instability, and cultural and moral anxiety.
The forced seclusion of Afghan women in refugee camps prior to the rise and fall of the Talibanthe abduction of women in tribal vendettas, rape within the context of war,10 and the recent sexualized violence against Muslim women in Gujarat, all exemplify the inscription of cultural identity and honour upon the bodies of women, turning them—as embodied signs—into literal and figurative battlefields.
The objectification of women formulates the body, as site of female difference, as the locus of violence. In extreme cases as docu- mented during the partition riots and again in Gujarat there is sexual mutilation, the severing of breasts, the tearing open of vaginas and wombs, and—distinctively, tragically, in Gujarat—the forced abortion of foetuses and their display on trishuls.
Afghan refugees in Pakistan attest to this. Families are divided and decimated as women are disallowed outside the camps or family tents by surviving male family, even if it denotes a loss in income.
Reports on the status of refugee women have noted high levels of trauma, depression, and frustration, as Lubna Chaudhry has found in her work with Mohajir survivors of ethnic conflict in Pakistan in this volume. Echoes of this can be seen in Kashmir where militants have increasingly pressured women to adopt purdah.
As Saba Gul Khattak reminds us in her article, the status of women in Afghanistan under the Taliban needs no recapitulation: The Everyday in the Postcolonial Present What does it mean to inhabit the postcolonial present?
It encapsulates both the descriptive and analytical, calling for a methodology that disrupts linearity, and refuses to make monolithic struggle and emancipation.
Everyday aspects of life in postcolonial South Asia are inextricably inter- twined with larger processes of development and legacies of colonialism, even as the physical reality of place becomes a player in, and is impacted by, globalization.
As an era of globalization12 promises geosynchronicity During, How do everyday forms of violence against women that do not requite enumeration facilitate large-scale events of gendered violence?version of this essay was published in "Feminist Jurisprudence "--The Myra Bradwell Day Panel, 1 COLUM.
J. GENDER & L. 6 (). I am grateful to Martha Minow for conversations on feminism and civil procedure from which many of the ideas in this essay emerged. 1. Patriarchy And Violence Against Women Essay. A+. Pages:5 Words This is just a sample. To get a unique essay.
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Engendering violence ; Patriarchy ; Women Equal Status With Men ;. Title: Engendering violence in Papua New Guinea / edited by Margaret Jolly and Christine Stewart ; with Carolyn Brewer. ISBN: (pbk.) (ebook) Notes: Includes bibliographical references. Subjects: Family violence--Papua New Guinea.
Social psychology--Papua New Guinea. Social adjustment--Papua New Guinea. Violence could occur in various ways and in different levels. It may happen in the form of physical, sexual, verbal and psychological abuse, and could be inflicted by any individual, groups, institutions or nations.
Engendering Violence in Papua New Guinea. Cover; Title page; Marian Devotion as a Solution to Gender-based Violence in Urban PNG; 5.
Engendering Violence in the Papua New Guinea Courts: Sentencing in Rape Trials in Bariai, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea. In Sexual Snakes, Winged Maidens and Sky Gods: Myth in the Pacific, An Essay in.
GENDERING AND ENGENDERING PROCESS Elizabeth M. Schneider* I begin this essay with the admission that I am an unabashed proceduralist. I believe that Civil Procedure is by far the most im- Violence Against Women and Legal Education: An Essay for Mary Joe Frug, 26 NEW ENG. L. REV. (); Elizabeth M.