A lab report on the growth of bacteria in a conjugation and transformation experiment

A stochastic DNA walker that traverses a microparticle surface.

A lab report on the growth of bacteria in a conjugation and transformation experiment

What is phage display? Phage display is a selection technique in which a library of variants of a peptide or protein is expressed on the outside of a phage virion, while the genetic material encoding each variant resides on the inside.

This creates a physical linkage between each variant protein sequence and the DNA encoding it, which allows rapid partitioning based on binding affinity to a given target molecule antibodies, enzymes, cell-surface receptors, etc.

Biopanning is carried out by incubating the pool of phage-displayed variants with a target of interest that has been immobilized on a plate or bead, washing away unbound phage, and eluting specifically bound phage.

The eluted phage is then amplified in vivo and the process repeated, resulting in stepwise enrichment of the phage pool in favor of the tightest binding sequences.

What are the advantages of phage display screening over other antibody development method?

Activity 4: Transformation of E. coli using green fluorescent protein. Use a 10% bleach solution to wipe down the benches at the end of the experiment. Wash hands before leaving lab. To dispose of contaminated material: Immerse all disposable pipets, tubes, and loops that have come in contact with bacteria in 10% bleach solution for at. Lab Report of the Experiment of Conjugation of E. Coli and are capable of replicating in the bacteria cell b. Direct transfer by transformation of gene transfer from one bacterial cell to another (Purpose) 3. Process of experiment a. Resistance to antibiotic ampicillin on Escherichia coli and the transfer and growth of the bacteria. There are many ways that bacterial DNA can be altered including transduction and conjugation but we will use the process of transformation to alter the E. coli genome. A plasmid is a “small circular piece of DNA in bacteria that resembles the bacterial circular chromosome, but is dispensable.

In comparison with hybridoma technology, phage display technology offers great advantages. Hybridoma method is only available in mouse, rat, hamster and guinea pig. On the other hand, phage display could be used to generate high-affinity monoclonal antibodies from all popular antibody production species, including but not limited to human, mouse, rat, rabbit, chicken, llama, camel, alpaca, cow, dog, sheep, monkey, and shark.

Hybridoma-based monoclonal antibody development can only generate a small number of antibody candidates against a particular immunogen at a time; whereas phage display technology can present the entire antibody repertoire e.

With such a huge pool of potential binders, the chance is much better to use phage display technology to discover antibodies of the desired properties. In addition, using hybridoma technology, it is hard to incorporate an enriching step that can selectively isolate antibodies with the desired functionality.

A lab report on the growth of bacteria in a conjugation and transformation experiment

In most cases, all the hybridoma clones are produced first and then validated one by one. In contrast, phage display technology allows various enriching strategies: In summary, this immune antibody library approach allows collecting almost all antibodies in the animals and isolating the strongest binders from the collection.

Moreover, counter-selection can be easily incorporated. What are the difference among M13, T7, and T4 displaying system? M13 filamentous phage has always been the most popular option and extensively used in various types of research, among many other types of phages. Unlike T4 and T7, M13 is lysogenic phage which is assembled in the periplasm and secreted out of the bacterial membrane without lysing the host.

The multiple capsid proteins on M13 phage allow the comprehensive display choices for a variety of peptides and proteins with distinctive characteristics. All five capsids have been successfully used for foreign domain display with unique vectors. Bacteriophage T4 is distinct from M13 in many aspects.

Larger genome DNA allows larger insertions of foreign proteins. Both N- and C-terminal insertion are available. Without membrane secreting process, host toxicity and confirmation changes could be avoided using T4 phage.

T7 phages have a shorter lifecycle compared to filamentous phages and lambda phages.

A lab report on the growth of bacteria in a conjugation and transformation experiment

The assembly of the progeny phages are in bacterial cytoplasm and released by lysis of cell envelope, therefore there is no size limitation and host toxicity resulting from the secreting process.

In addition, T7 phages are very stable at extreme conditions where other phages could not survive. In order to fuse the corresponding protein to the coat protein properly, an insert must be in the correct reading frame at both ends and contains no in-frame stop codons.This course is designed to provide an overview on epidemiology and the Internet for medical and health related students around the world based on the concept of Global Health Network University and Hypertext Comic Books.

There are three different mechanisms for genetic exchange between bacteria: conjugation, transformation and transduction. Conjugation has been shown to occur in Results of the Bacterial Conjugation Lab Exercise conjugation in your experiment (i.e., the % of the conjugants per parental pair).

English vocabulary word lists and various games, puzzles and quizzes to help you study them. (Click here for bottom) P p p, P Momentum. Utility of the concept of momentum, and the fact of its conservation (in toto for a closed system) were discovered by . Transformation pVIB Lab Answers; is vital in molecular biology and the observable results of this experiment are evidence of the effectiveness of transformation.

Since the bacteria E. coli are not naturally competent cells the E because there was no ampicillin present there was a major growth of bacteria because the bacteria was. There is a natural immune enhancing substance that is produced and secreted by a lymphocyte functioning in cell-mediated immunity and that upon incorporation into a lymphocyte which has not been sensitized confers on it the same immunological specificity as the sensitized cell".

Transformation Lab Report - Aurup ~ AP Biology