What Is a Field? What Are Instants and Durations?
Revolutions, which are the result of the crisis in its most extreme form, involve the overthrow not merely of the government but of the political order itself. Typically, a revolution is preceded by a series of strains within the system: A revolution constitutes a challenge to the established political order and the eventual establishment of a new order radically different from the preceding one.
The great revolutions of European historyespecially the Glorious EnglishFrenchand Russian revolutions, changed not only the system of government but also the economic systemthe social structure, and the cultural values of those societies.
Historically, the concept of revolution was seen as a very destructive forcefrom ancient Greece to the European Middle Ages.
The ancient Greeks saw revolution as a possibility only after the decay of the fundamental moral and religious tenets of society. Plato believed that a constant, firmly entrenched code of beliefs could prevent revolution.
Any radical alteration in basic values or beliefs provides the ground for a revolutionary upheaval. During the Middle Agesthe maintenance of the established beliefs and forms of government remained the priority. Much attention was given to finding means of combating revolution and stifling changes in society.
Religious authority was so strong and its belief in the maintenance of order so fundamental that the church directed people to accept the inequities of power, instead of upsetting the stability of society.
Later and modern revolutionary thought Only after the emergence of secular humanism during the Renaissance did this concept of revolution, as a cause of the desecration of society, change to embrace a more modern perspective.
This new acceptance of change placed Machiavelli at the forefront of modern revolutionary thought, even though he never used the word revolution in his texts, and he was primarily concerned with the creation of a truly stable state.
He also saw revolution as the right of society to defend itself against abusive tyrants, creating a new order that reflected the needs of the people. To Milton, revolution was the means of accomplishing freedom. Later, in the 18th century, the French, Haitianand American revolutions were attempts to secure freedom from oppressive leadership.
Modern revolutions have frequently incorporated utopian ideals as a basis for change. John Milton at age 62, chromolithograph after a pastel by William Faithorne. This idea helped serve as a basis for the American and French revolutions.
Immanuel Kant, print published in London, Hegel was a crucial catalyst in the formation of 20th-century revolutionary thought. He saw revolutions as the fulfillment of human destiny, and he saw revolutionary leaders as those necessary to instigate and implement reforms.
Marx believed in progressive stages of human history, culminating in the working-class overthrow of the property-owning class.
For society to advance, the working class, or proletariatmust take over the means of production. Marx viewed this eventuality as the conclusion of the human struggle for freedom and a classless societythus eliminating the need for further political change.
Communist revolutions led by Marxists took place in Russia, YugoslaviaChina, Vietnamand Cuba, among other countries, in the 20th century. This leads to a fracture of political authority, as the governing body must rely upon an increasingly desperate use of force to remain in power.
Commensurate with this is the emergence of reform elements that serve to emphasize the corruption of the political authority. As the existing political order begins to lose its grasp on authority, momentum builds among the diverse forces of the opposition.
As the government becomes more precarious, the splinter groups that form the threat to the existing order band together to topple the authority. Brinton also observed the different stages of a major revolution.
After the government is overthrown, there is usually a period of optimistic idealism, and the revolutionaries engage in much perfectionist rhetoric. But this phase does not last very long. The practical tasks of governing have to be faced, and a split develops between moderates and radicals.The economic, political, and social frameworks that each society has—its laws, institutions, policies, etc.—result in different distributions of benefits and burdens across members of the society.
Introduction to Moral Theories and Principles that inform ethical decision making in healthcare Introduction If a clinical ethics committee (CEC) is to provide support on ethical issues relating to. Kant And Mill A Comparison Of Ethical Theories Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this John Mill's Utilitarianism and Immanuel Kant's Fundamental Principle of the Metaphysic of Morality present the two philosopher's divergent views on the field of moral philosophy.
The biggest flaw of Kant's moral theory is that it fails to mention the. The primary difference between Kant’s deontology (the fancy name for his ethical theory) and utilitarianism, is that Kant viewed an action as right or wrong without respect to the consequences, whereas utilitarianism views an action as right or wrong only with reference to the consequences of the action.
Kant’s moral philosophy proposes that practical reason in accordance with moral imperatives should drive right actions. Duty should guide right action. Acting according to what is willed to be universal law is the “Categorical Imperative” that .
What are the similarities and differences in the ethical theories of Aristotle and Immanuel Kant? Kant and Aristotle have 1 thing in common, but many differences. Both men assert/argue that Ethics has a rational basis, in distinct contrast to David Hume's "sentimental" basis, Mill's utilitarian.